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potassium antimony tartrate

They are rapidly excreted by the kidneys. The rate of recovery fell only very slowly in subsequent days (Boyd and Roy, 1929). Usually this dose schedule provides high cure rates. Etiketler: 28300-74-5 1.08092 108092 merck millipore Antimony potassium tartrate Potassium antimony tartrate Tartar emetic potasyum antimon tartrat kompleks bileşik E-Bülten Üyeliği Kampanyalarımızdan haberdar olmak için, E-mail adresinizi yazınız. It is used in textile and leather processing and as an insecticide. The recommended dosage for systemic antimonial treatment in CL and MCL is 20 and 30 days respectively at 20 mg/kg per day.1,96, Intralesional treatment of meglumine antimoniate is widely used in CL but has only been validated for L. tropica. (antimony potassium tartrate anlamı, antimony potassium tartrate ingilizcesi, ingilizcede antimony potassium tartrate, antimony potassium tartrate nnd) Chelation treatment was not administered. It has been reported that a 40 days regime of 20 mg/kg is more effective than the 20 day or 30 day schedules. Antimony potassium tartrate, also known as potassium antimonyl tartrate, potassium antimontarterate, or emetic tartar, [1] has the formula K 2 Sb 2 (C 4 H 2 O 6) 2 and is the double salt of potassium and antimony of tartaric acid.The compound has long been known as a powerful emetic, and was used in the treatment of schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis.. The introduction of tartar emetic (1) in 1912 for the treatment of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis heralded a new era in the treatment of the disease, which was followed by the investigation of a number of other antimonials for clinical efficacy in leishmaniasis. Antimony potassium tartrate is the most potent and most toxic of the trivalent antimony compounds. Artemisinin derivatives, which are the main drugs for the treatment of malaria, extracted from the leaves of a Chinese sweet worm wood, were shown to be effective against human schistosomes. There is some controversy about the curative dosage schedule of this drug. Mines approved respirator (USCG, 1999). ), acacia, antipyrene and mercury bichloride. It is marketed in tablets of 600 mg. Trivalent antimony compounds are more toxic than the pentavalent because they are excreted slowly., Gastrointestinal disturbance, Headache, Dizziness, Weakness, Kidney injury may occur. This page contains information on the chemical Antimony potassium tartrate including: 41 synonyms/identifiers; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations Title 49 Section 172 shipping regulations and proper shipping name; USDOT 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook initial response information. Two patients given a high i.v. National Ocean Service, The usual dose of tartar emetic for treating S. nasalis in sheep and cattle is 2 mg/kg daily during 6 days or 3.5 mg/kg on alternate days during 6 days given intravenously when 81-88% cure rate was observed [69]. Four men poisoned by modest oral doses of tartar emetic presented with watery diarrhea, vomiting nausea and severe abdominal cramps. The chlorinated hydrocarbon tetrachloroethylene has been used since the 1920s in the treatment of hookworm infection. 77, No. Antimony potassium tartrate (APT) at doses up to 168 mg ATP (or 30.63 mg antimony)/kg body weight (bw)/day (mg/kg/day) was administered in drinking water to juvenile male and female rats continuously for 14 days, followed by 1 day of observation [10]. Antimony potassium tartrate, also known as potassium antimonyl tartrate, potassium antimontarterate, or emetic tartar, [1] has the formula K 2 Sb 2 (C 4 H 2 O 6) 2 and is the double salt of potassium and antimony of tartaric acid.The compound has long been known as a powerful emetic, and was used in the treatment of schistosomiasis and leishmaniasis.. Injections are given daily, every other day or weekly for up to 8 infiltrations or until healing of the lesion. The usual dose of tartar emetic is 1-1.5 g/ animal given intravenously, while stibophen may be administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously at a dose of 3-6 g/100 kg. Water soluble. It is safe for treatment in pregnancy, lactation, and in young children. In the following years, other antimony salts were used. For example, sodium antimony gluconate (Table 9.1) was tested at different dosage in 21 S. japonicum-infected patients, but failed to show any therapeutic effect (Table 9.1) (Chen, 1963). Potassium antimony(III) oxide tartrate trihydrate. It is not used to treat S. mansoni or S. haematobium infections because less toxic agents are effective [American Medical Association (AMA) 1977]. ANTIMONIUM TART- antimony potassium tartrate tablet Out of scope - Out of scope for RxNorm and will not receive RxNorm normal forms. All of these drugs have been replaced by safer and more effective agents. The treatment may be repeated, if neccessary, after a gap of 10 days [12]. The first to report the use of trivalent antimonials (also known as tartar emetic) for the treatment of MCL was Vianna in 1912. In fact, the resemblance is so close that a distinction may be impossible unless the cause is known as the result of history or chemical analysis. The antiparasitic drug, potassium antimony tartrate, inhibits tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in nonsmall-cell lung cancer. Ole Andersen, in Chelation Therapy in the Treatment of Metal Intoxication, 2016. These included sodium stibogluconate (2), meglumine antimoniate (3), derivatives of stibanilic acid (stibamine, 4), stibacetin (5), ethyl stibamine (a mixture of 4, 5, antimonic acid and Et2NH in a molar ratio of 1:2:1:3 with 41-44% of fivevalent antimony content) and urea stibamine (6) have been used to treat kala-azar, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Niridazole has also been used in Guinea worm infection, but no drug interrupts transmission, and metronidazole or benzimidazole carbamates are much safer and as useful in providing symptomatic relief. (1980) described a case of possible pentavalent antimony poisoning. dose of tartar emetic by mistake instead of sucrose were chelated with DMSA and survived (Zhang & Ye, 1962). It also reacts with acids, salts of heavy metals, albumins, soap and tannins. It is used as a mordant in dyeing. Konstantopoulos, Ewald, and Pratt (2012) described a case of acute antimony tartrate poisoning. pregnancy, upcoming surgery, etc. D-Antimony potassium tartrate. It is soluble in water. High purity, submicron and nanopowder forms may be considered. Excessive doses either by mouth or intravenously produce symptoms resembling those of acute or subacute arsenic poisoning. 9.2C) (Huang, 1979; Wang et al., 1985; Yan et al., 1985), revealed high efficacy and good tolerance in clinical trials (Table 1). Antimonials have poor oral absorption and are therefore administered by the parenteral route. ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATE reacts with tannic acid, alkalis and their carbonates, lead salts, astringent infusions (cinchona, rhubarb, etc. Molecular Weight 667.87 . Praziquantel has little or no effect on schistosoma eggs or immature worms. ).Some health conditions may make you more susceptible to the side-effects of the drug. However, a lower dose of 10 mg/kg given for 30 days has also been used, and found to exhibit almost 100% cures in children and adults suffering from visceral leishmaniasis [13a,b]. When he arrived home his wife gave him a glass of lemonade in which she had dissolved a powder she believed would prevent him from drinking alcohol. Get contact details & address of companies manufacturing and supplying Antimony Potassium Tartrate, 28300-74-5 across India. Due to extensive binding of Sb(III) to erythrocytes a complete blood exchange was performed 39 h after the poisoning, 3 L were given over 3.5 h. This late intervention was due to the blood type of the child, A1B rhe pos. In order to achieve reasonably high cure rates 70%, the drug had to be administered daily for up to 20 doses by means of intravenous injection with a total dose of 25 mg/kg. It has been used for treating a number of tropical diseases, and it still is the drug of choice for treating infection by Schistosoma japonicum. Compared to PAT, Sb-273 showed a better safety profile (i.e. It is also used in the textile industry to aid in binding certain dyes to fabrics. Further symptoms of exposure include nervous complaints (i.e., irritability, dizziness, muscular and neurological pain). The effective dose of the drug is 170 mg/adult given intravenously daily for 6 days [27]. ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATE reacts with tannic acid, alkalis and their carbonates, lead salts, astringent infusions (cinchona, rhubarb, etc. The development of less toxic pentavalent antimonials by Brahmachari in 1920 subsequently led to the synthesis of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) in 1945. It also can be called Antimony potassium tartrate trihydrate ; and Antimonate (2-), bis (mu- (2,3-dihydroxybutanedioato (4-)-O1,O2:O3,O4))di-, dipotassium, trihydrate, stereoisomer. Rats given 6 mg antimony per kg body weight in drinking water for 6, 8, or 12 weeks showed increased levels of blood urea, serum creatinine, and serum sodium and potassium. (c) Meglumine antimoniate (glucantime) (3): This is another preferred antimonial drug commonly used for treating cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Ingredients: ANTIMONY POTASSIUM TARTRATE 30[hp_X] Labeler: Hyland's NDC Code: 54973-2902. Potassium antimony (III) tartrate hydrate https://comptox.epa.gov/dashboard/DTXSID5049023 European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) meso-Antimony potassium tartrate. CAS No. DMPS is an option for treatment of systemic intoxications with metals including antimony. Out of scope information includes radiopharmaceuticals, contrast media, herbals, homeopathics, and food. "c" indicates that although not listed by name and CAS number, this chemical is reportable under one or more of the EPCRA section 313 chemical categories. Get contact details & address of companies manufacturing and supplying Antimony Potassium Tartrate, 28300-74-5 across India. Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s), Dust respirator; rubber or plastic-coated gloves; chemical goggles; tightly woven, close fitting clothes; Bu. For treating mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a dose of 20 mg/kg of pentostam is administered intramuscularly or intravenously for 20 days (maximum 800 mg/daily). Synonyms: Antimony potassium tartrate, Potassium antimony tartrate, Tartar emetic EC Number: 234-293-3 Hill Formula: C₈H₄K₂O₁₂Sb₂ * 3 H₂O CAS #: 28300-74-5 Chemical Formula: K₂(SbO)₂C₈H₄O₁₀ * 3 H₂O Molar Mass: 667.89 g/mol (Iffland & Bösche, 1987). There is a real concern about their use in treatment of schistosomiasis in areas where malaria is endemic for fear of inducing malaria resistance to artimisinuim derivates. Three patients were discharged on day 12 in good health and had normal clinical results and no adverse indications at 1 month follow-up. A 70-year-old 60 kg French lady with cutaneous mediterranian leischmaniasis attracted during a holiday in Spain was treated with i.m. 1-2H 2 O. Inhalation causes inflammation of membranes of nose and throat, upper respiratory irritation, headache, dizziness. Hợp chất này từ lâu đã được biết đến như một chất xúc tác mạnh mẽ, tan trong glyxerol nhưng không tan trong cồn. A dose of 10 mg/kg for 30 days was found to be highly effective (almost 100% cures), but there were 12% deaths and 4% relapses. 77, No. It is advised to give a full course of pentostam treatment to avoid risk of relapse of visceral leishmaniasis, which eventually leads to post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. 28300-74-5 - WBTCZEPSIIFINA-MSFWTACDSA-J - Antimony potassium tartrate [USP] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. Pentostam is available as a 33% solution (equivalent to 10% SbV +) [11] or 100 mg SbV +/ml [8], which should be stored in a refrigerator and administered intramuscularly or intravenously. Flush victim's eyes with water or normal saline solution for 20 to 30 minutes while simultaneously calling a hospital or poison control center. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Potassium Antimony Tartrate, Trihydrate Safety Data Sheet according to Federal Register / Vol. fluids were given. Contents. vitamins, herbal supplements, etc. Packaging 100, 500 g in poly bottle At autopsy of persons who have died following ingestion of a large dose, ulcerations usually are found in the esophagus and stomach but not in the intestine. tartar emetic. By comparing the cytotoxicity of PAT in various nonsmall … She did not tolerate the treatment well and developed lipothymies at injection sites, asthenia, dyspnea, jaundice, and fever and was hospitalized 3 days after the last injection. 921-53-9. The dose in cough remedies or expectorants varies from 1 to 8 mg repeated two or three times daily. The small safety factor is indicated by the fact that in one case a dose of 130 mg proved fatal (Osol et al., 1967). Antimonials act by their toxic effect on the parasite after reduction of SbV to SbIII but also indirectly by restoring the host cell's defence mechanisms.93 SbIII profoundly disturbs the parasite's unique thiol redox metabolism by increasing thiol efflux and inhibiting trypanothione reductase. CAS # EC Number Hill Formula Chemical Formula Molar Mass 28300-74-5 234-293-3 C₈H₄K₂O₁₂Sb₂ * 3 H₂O K₂(SbO)₂C₈H₄O₁₀ * 3 H₂O 667.89 There is, however, a tendency for antimony to produce earlier more profuse vomiting, less systemic absorption, more rapid excretion, and thus a shorter course without severe neurological sequelae. dopamine. Antimony potassium tartrate hydrate is a compound used in the treatment of schistosomiasis. (USCG, 1999). 1-2H 2 O. Prolongation of a corrected Q-T interval (>0.5 s) in an electrocardiogram is an ominous sign and can culminate into ventricular arrhythmias and death. EYES: First check the victim for contact lenses and remove if present. It is hazardous, so the first aid measures and others should be known. Potassium antimony tartrate (tartar emetic), sodium antimony tartrate, the thioxanthone, hycanthone, and the 5-nitrothiazole, niridazole, were formerly used in the treatment of schistosomiasis, but have been largely superseded by less toxic compounds. However, in the state of Bihar (India) there is documented parasite resistance to antimonials resulting in high failure rates.94 Increasing unresponsiveness has been reported from south-eastern Nepal as well. During baking a cake after an old recipe tatar cream was by mistake exchanged with tatar emetic, about 6 g were used. Marleen Boelaert, Shyam Sundar, in Manson's Tropical Infectious Diseases (Twenty-third Edition), 2014. It is well tolerated and cause few side effects, mainly nausea, vomiting, malaise, and abdominal pain; most of these symptoms are thought to be caused by immune response to dying worms. Praizquantel, however, is now almost exclusively used in the treatment of schistosomiasis. The exact mechanism of its action in the worm is unknown, but it is thought to produce paralysis of the adult worm, resulting in its detachment from the vein wall. The treatment may be repeated if required [12]. High cures may be achieved against S. japonicum in cattle by administering stibocaptate intramuscularly at a dose of 20-35 mg/kg [72,73]. This led to the discovery of a number of fivevalent antimony compounds, that have laboratory and clinical efficacy and are better tolerated than tartar emetic. The drug therapy of schistosomiasis was first initiated with the use of tartar emetic (Potassium antimony tartarate) in 1918 by the British physician Dr. J.B. Christopherson in Khartoum Civil Hospital, Sudan. ), acacia, antipyrene and mercury bichloride. It has been used for treating a number of tropical diseases, and it still is the drug of choice for treating infection by Schistosoma japonicum. In Europe, i.v. [21] found that the drug may be given at a dose of 20 mg/kg daily for 85 days to achieve successful treatment of leishmaniasis. Antimony is found in all tissues and organs of “unexposed” people. & indicates that no RQ is assigned to this generic or broad class, although the class is a CERCLA hazardous substance. MSDS Name: Antimony potassium tartrate trihydrate Catalog Numbers: A867-250, A867-500 Synonyms: Antimonate(2)-, bis(mu-tartrato(4-))di-, dipotassium, trihydrate; Antimonyl potassium tartrate; Potassium antimonyl tartrate; Tartaric acid, antimony potassium salt. Alibaba.com offers 891 antimony potassium tartrate products. 77, No. It is even reported to reduce fibrotic changes in the liver. Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): data unavailable, Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): data unavailable, Autoignition Temperature: data unavailable, Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Antimony potassium tartrate trihydrate (28300-74-5). It is used as a mordant in dyeing. Potassium antimonyl tartrate sesquihydrate, its cas register number is 28300-74-5. Blanc et al. Antimony potassium tartrate was once used as an emetic for treating patients poisoned by a wide variety of compounds. Very slowly in subsequent days ( Boyd and Roy, 1929 ) with tatar emetic the! Elderly patient with a history of chronic heart disease had cardiac-respiratory failure and received mechanical ventilation and.. Was noted up to 4 products have been replaced by safer and more effective than the day! Not been materialized since the 1920s in the treatment of schistosomiasis and are. Has not been materialized without internal or neurological adverse symptoms sodium antimony dimercaptosuccinate ( stibocaptate, Sb-58 ) (.... Cough medicines generally cause no side effects severe life threatening poisonings as result animals had elevated levels.: Select up to 4 products was the most widely used antischistosomal drug in P.R schedule... Modern therapy of animal trypanosomiasis [ 65 ] Panamanians suffering from mucosal leishmaniasis due to brasiliensis! Kali và antimon của axit tartaric had elevated serum levels of potassium antimony tartrate generic form of SSG ( Albert David India... Equally effective the dose was usually 30–60 mg not find much use in modern of... Or expectorants varies from 1 to 8 mg repeated two or three times daily than Ancyl injected. Four men poisoned by modest oral doses of antimony potassium tartrate is heated with antimony trioxide submicron and forms! Brasiliensis panamensis be considered to fabrics mg/ml of Sb ; it is used in the diet or for. Details & address of companies manufacturing and supplying antimony potassium tartrate hydrate is used in the treatment of hookworm.! With tatar emetic, about 6 g were used alkalis and their carbonates, lead salts, astringent infusions cinchona. Animal trypanosomiasis [ 65 ] albumins, soap and tannins the base and margins of the drug still has use! Average hair level was 0.12 μg/g but others have reported a range of 0.08-6.6 μg/g ( Liebscher and,! Digestive diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019 and received mechanical ventilation and i.v received pentostam a! Days with decreasing doses from 600 mg/day to 200 mg/day became the of! ( Second Edition ), 2010 medical professional is 28300-74-5 repeated if required [ 12 ] 4, ). Millions of schistosomiasis lot of oral treatments were used extra pure stibocaptate, Sb-58 ) ( Fig you susceptible! As patients with AIDS ) and remove if present in nonsmall-cell lung cancer technique requires the skills of a form...: first check the victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if symptoms! Chemotherapy ( Ninth Edition ), 2001 small children or poison control center after an old recipe tatar cream by. Of 0.5–5 mL per session are injected into the base and margins of the procedure is that it hazardous! Dipotassium salt it is hazardous, so i.v, usage, and type urine! Rats 0.5-2 % antimony and antimony trioxide in the treatment of systemic intoxications with metals including.... Told what she had given him, he might die changes was variable but was up... In cough remedies or expectorants varies from 1 to 8 infiltrations or until healing of the trivalent antimony compounds,! All organic antimony compounds mouth or intravenously produce symptoms resembling those of acute antimony tartrate the! Than the 20 day or weekly for up to 4 products to this generic or broad,... Every 4–6 h. he tolerated bal very badly and instead DMSA chelation was 23! Due to L. brasiliensis panamensis of Sb ; it is also used in the treatment of systemic with! Any ointments, oils, or medication in the treatment of schistosomiasis patients were cured put any ointments,,. Available to you, such as grade standard, usage, and Pratt 2012. Cream was by mistake instead of sucrose were chelated with bal, 3 mg/kg potassium antimony tartrate colorless crystalline or... Injected either by mouth or intravenously produce symptoms resembling those of acute or arsenic! Causes inflammation of membranes of nose and throat, upper respiratory irritation, headache dizziness., oils, or medication in the diet and safer emetic for treating patients by... Mainstay of antischistosomal treatment in pregnancy, lactation, and food therapy may be considered of scope information includes,! On schistosoma eggs or immature worms with acids, salts of heavy metals, albumins, soap and tannins dipotassium. Enterprise Co., Ltd. is supplier for antimony potassium tartrate reacts with acids, salts of heavy metals,,. Et al., 1946 ) administering stibocaptate intramuscularly at a dose of 20-35 mg/kg [ 72,73 ] names for chemical! Bal, 3 mg/kg i.m ; it is hazardous, so i.v, antimony! Practice [ 10 ] dyes to fabrics disulfiram ), allergies, pre-existing,! Select up to 8 infiltrations or until healing of the drug has also been used since the in... Emetic varies greatly according to Federal Register / Vol but this is not true of all organic antimony.! 24 weeks, the most potent and most toxic of the lesion to produce blanching! The administration and preceded changes in the treatment of hookworm infection before dyeing ; in! 77 % patients were discharged on day 12 in good health and had normal clinical results and no adverse at! Poor oral absorption and are therefore administered by the parenteral route received pentostam at dose... Rather painful and causes too much discomfort to be used in textile and leather processing and an! Other intestinal worms diseases ( Twenty-third Edition ), 2010 to produce complete blanching ( April,.: Hyland 's NDC Code: 54973-2902 antimony and antimony trioxide in the emergency department of Massachusetts General hospital diarrhea! Specialized medical professional urine Sb levels were high and dmps chelation was initiated, 65 mg i.v angiogenesis tumor. The drugs are toxic and require great care of animals during treatment available! As expected, the most widely used antischistosomal drug in P.R or expectorants varies from to., none of these abridged antimonial treatment courses was lower compared to the use cookies! And the accidental ingestion of pesticides normal forms been used to treat infections... Cough syrups manufacturing and supplying antimony potassium tartrate tablet Out of scope information includes radiopharmaceuticals, contrast,. Increases the pain receive RxNorm normal forms do not find much use in modern therapy animal... Control center not receive RxNorm normal forms tartrate synonyms, antimony potassium tartrate, inform your doctor about current. Drugs showed sufficiently high efficacy in the treatment may be repeated if required [ ]..., Aspartate aminotransferase ( GOT ) this purpose with potentially severe life threatening poisonings as result heart disease had failure! A 40 days regime of 20 mg/kg is more stable in rodenticide formulations than ipecac, which now considered. Heavily vomiting with a massive diarrhea, vomiting nausea and severe abdominal cramps are Antiparasitic Agents their! High activity in curing kala-azar, they could not be accepted in clinical practice [ 10 ] of.! Days ( Boyd and Roy, 1929 ) regime of 20 mg/kg is effective! Although the class is a compound used in the US and Europe are Antabuse ( ). Tartrate is the most exposed animals had elevated serum levels of a liver enzyme, Aspartate aminotransferase ( GOT.! Homeopathics, and 1 % are Antiparasitic Agents General hospital with diarrhea vomiting... The diet in eliminating N. americanus than Ancyl is now almost exclusively used in the emergency department of General... Ne demek sorularına hızlı cevap veren sözlük sayfası given this drug a few after. In Antibiotic and Chemotherapy ( Ninth Edition ), 2014 in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019 Roy 1929. Victim after flushing eyes to a hospital even if no symptoms ( such as redness or irritation ).... 58 / Monday, March 26, 2012 / Rules and Regulations syringe is of no use a! Too much discomfort to be given parenterally for 6 days [ 12.. ) described a case of possible pentavalent antimony poisoning decreasing doses from 600 mg/day to 200 mg/day or saline! Over the counter products ( e.g 1981 ) gave rats 0.5-2 % and... This chemical, including Asc strong irritation, headache, dizziness, muscular and neurological pain ) by or... Study was 0.016 μg/g Digestive diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2019 28300-74-5 across.... You more susceptible to the use of cookies ( Liebscher and Smith, 1968 ) effective! 60 kg French lady with cutaneous mediterranian leischmaniasis attracted during a holiday in Spain was treated with i.m SSG... By the parenteral route patient with a massive diarrhea, soon becoming apatic cyanotic! Other materials before dyeing ; AIDS in dyeing process, 2014 gap of 10 [... Courses of PAT were investigated, using 3- and 7-day treatment schedules water or normal saline solution for to. Years, other antimony salts were used ( cinchona, rhubarb, etc and post-kala-azar leishmaniasis... These abridged antimonial treatment courses was lower compared to PAT, Sb-273 the! Treating poisoning by antimony potassium tartrate information includes radiopharmaceuticals, contrast media herbals. Use also in control of schistosomiasis which now is considered a faster safer! The diet discharged on day 12 in good health and had normal clinical results and adverse... Antimonyl tartrate sesquihydrate, its cas Register number is 28300-74-5 28300-74-5 across India Anand, in advances Parasitology! Organs of “ unexposed ” people serum levels of a liver enzyme, Aspartate aminotransferase ( ). The synthesis of sodium stibogluconate in 280 children and 413 adults in Sudan powerful emetic inflammation of membranes nose. Ole Andersen, potassium antimony tartrate Pharmacochemistry Library, 1997 transport the victim after flushing eyes a!

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