Pandian had been in prison for the previous five years. Ambedkar, ... Caste Violence Against India's Untouchables by. Several others sustained terrible injuries. Murder in Mudukulathur: Caste and electoral politics in Tamil Nadu by K. A. Manikumar, New Delhi, LeftWord Books, 2017, 177 pp., ₹295 (paperback), ISBN 9789380118512 Vignesh Karthik KR & Jeyannathann Karunanithi By Anand Teltumbde . Two kinds of violence were on display in Ramanathapuram – the violence of the dominant class and the violence of the oppressed. The Mudukulathur Riots have since been deployed by various parties in their political mobilisation. This system was subsequently re-established with a stricter collection of 11 restrictions. Back from the Indian Army in 1952, Immanuel involved himself in revolutionary activity against caste oppression and organised Pallar youth in Ramanathapuram district.1 The period Kilvenmani Massacre of January1969 . Read more about Caste, social mobility: How Karunanidhi shaped the Dravidian movement on Business Standard. The violence of the dominant class obstructs the advance of historical forces, whereas the violence of the subordinate is used in the interest of the emancipation of all of humanity. A. Perumal, the Pallar MLA who represented the Mudukulathur reserve constituency was the sole representative of the Pallar community. Here the main fault line is between the Mukkulathor (those of the three castes – Maravar, Kallar and Agamudaiyar) and the Pallars (a Dalit community). Manikumar’s Murder in Mudukulathur: Caste and Electoral Politics in Tamil Nadu (2017) helps set the record straight. Gradually, incidents of violent clashes between Thevars (who generally supported the Forward Bloc) and pro-Congress Devendrakula Velalar began to occur. While the Thevars remember it for the state violence, the Pallars recollect it as one more instance of caste violence, but where they resisted the violence bravely.  This violence, caused by human aggressiveness, is ‘identified with fighting instinct and characterised by the exercise of force, with a view to inflicting injury or damage to person or property’. Five Thevars were killed in police gunfire. This article is part of the #GBVInMedia campaign for the 16 Days Of Activism global campaign to end gender-based violence. In the 1957 general elections, U. Muthuramalingam Thevar had contested both the Srivilliputhur parliamentary seat and the Mudukulathur seat in the Madras legislative assembly. The same year, the sub-collector of Ramanathapuram said that his officers refused to live in the area. The police did not stay their guns. Since then he commands a strong following in these areas.↩. Electoral democracy and aggravations of livelihood inflamed older social divides, bringing caste firmly into modern disputes. These include the murder of a Scheduled Caste leader Shri Thiyahi Imanual at Paramakkudi town and 42 Scheduled Caste persons at Mudukulathur in Ramanathapuram district in 1957, of 44 Scheduled Castes at Keelavenmani in Tanjaur district in 1968, 5 at Unjanai in Pasumpon Muthuramalingam district in 1979 and 16 at Vilupuram in Chengalpat district in 1983. On 28–29 September 1957, CRC held a state conference and reconstituted itself as the Indian National Democratic Congress. The Mukkulathor people, who are also collectively known as Thevar, are a community or group of communities native to the central and southern districts of Tamil Nadu, India.They comprise the Agamudayar, Kallar and Maravar communities that share a common myth of origin and claim to have once been members of various ancient South Indian dynasties. Protests of a sporadic kind took place against the police’s behaviour. Books Advanced Search Today's Deals New Releases Amazon Charts Best Sellers & More The Globe & Mail Best Sellers New York Times Best Sellers Advanced Search Today's Deals New Releases Amazon Charts Best Sellers & More On 21 September, more clashes occurred, but from the following day onward there were no reported incidents. Here it is important to note that the word violence or aggression would not apply to the use of force ‘by dependent people in their bid to secure their inalienable rights’. On 8 ... Gradually the violence spread to more and more villages, and by August the riots had spread throughout the entire district. While the Thevars remember it for the state violence, the Pallars recollect it as one more instance of caste violence, but where they resisted the violence bravely. Traffic stopped in Paramakudi town. Murder in Mudukulathur: Caste and Electoral Politics in Tamil Nadu by K.A. This is not merely a historical episode. Migration and religious conversion to a certain degree, allowed them to gain access to jobs and education and thus they started to assert themselves. Kondayan kottai maravars women were having habits of maruthalli. Their presence in politics and … Murder in Mudukulathur [Manikumar, K.A.] Sekaran, who represented dalits, is believed to have refused to stand up when Muthuramalinga T walked in. seeking Mukkulathor support although its anti- In 1957, intense caste violence broke out in south-eastern Tamil Nadu between the regionally dominant caste of Thevars, and Devendrakula Vellalars (Pallars), a Dalit community. , On 13 September, clashes erupted at Arumkulam. This police shooting triggered the violence that followed in Ramanathapuram district. Acting on misguided instructions from above, John Pandian. In 1957, intense caste violence broke out in south-eastern Tamil Nadu between the regionally dominant caste of Thevars, and Devendrakula Vellalars (Pallars), a Dalit community. He had mellowed in the jail. Prof K.A. Violence was the coin of this political commerce. It is an event invoked both by Thevars and Pallars. This was for instance the case with the violence centered around Mudukulathur in 1958, elsewhere in the southern plains since the 1990s, and in parts of the western plains since the 2000s. Following the election, a joint 'CRC opposition' group was formed in the legislative assembly, to counter the bid of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (which had 16 seats) to hold the post of Leader of the Opposition. … In the aftermath of any caste conflict, a Christian NGO will send a so-called fact finding team and organise a press conference to spread a motivated report (containing rules and principles from “UN Conventions”) which is always against the other caste and state police force, and which sometimes gives a clarion call for UN intervention. A few feeble protests followed, but the arrest led to the end of the Thevar offensive in the region. 6 mins read. On 20 September, police gunfire killed five thevars, four in Uluthumadi and one in Malavavanenthall. The former includes homicide and related crimes, while the latter manifests itself in riots and rebellions. 27-35.↩,  N.A. Until the turn of the twentieth century, the Mukkulathor were a law unto themselves. Manikumar, 2017 The Agrarian Question in Marx and his Successors, Volume I edited by Utsa Patnaik, 2007 The Agrarian Question in Marx and his Successors, Volume II edited by Utsa Patnaik, 2011 History, Society and Land Relations: Selected Essays by E.M.S. Murder in Mudukulathur. On 11 September, Emmanuel Sekaran, a member of the Congress delegation at the peace conference, was murdered in Paramakudi by Maravars. The violence was triggered by the legislative assembly by-election, following U. Muthuramalinga Thevar's resignation. Below is the preface to his monograph. Skip to main content.in Hello, Sign in. In 1957, intense caste violence broke out in south-eastern Tamil Nadu between the regionally dominant caste of Thevars, and Devendrakula Vellalars (Pallars), a Dalit community. The judicial enquiry conducted by Gomathinayagam Commission on the Kodiyankulam incident (1996) and the Justice Mohan Commission on the Tamiraparani tragedy (1999) had justified police action and acquitted the state revenue and police officials of their excesses. In the bitterly contested election his Forward Bloc party members and Congress party members clashed. A 'peace conference' was held on 10 September, attended by U. Muthuramalinga Thevar (who had returned day before from Delhi), T.L. The sharp antagonism is related not only to social discrimination, but is also rooted in the economic realities of property ownership. Ramanathapuram district - one of the southern districts of Tamil Nadu - is one of such kind. As the situation reached a flash point the police officers ordered the policemen to open fire. Etched in popular memory as the Mudukulathur Riots, the memories of this infamous event remain alive today. Terrible caste violence broke out in 1957 in eastern Ramanathapuram district (Tamil Nadu). On 14 September, a group of armed police entered the village of Keelathooval in order to arrest suspects in the Emmanuel Sekaran murder case. The press reported five incidents of additional police firing. Both communities have subsequently used the memory of Mudukulathur, the epicentre of riots in 1957, to mobilise their communities. Terrible caste violence broke out in 1957 in eastern Ramanathapuram district (Tamil Nadu). Mudukulathur to a significant part of the southern plains in 1958 because the party prioritised . Thevar rebuked his followers for allowing Immanuel ‘to grow in stature and talk back to him’. Manikumar, 2017 The Agrarian Question in Marx and his Successors, Volume I edited by Utsa Patnaik, 2007 The Agrarian Question in Marx and his Successors, Volume II edited by Utsa Patnaik, 2011 History, Society and Land Relations: Selected Essays by E.M.S. On the same day, the Thevar village of Ilanchambol was attacked by a Devendrakula Velalar mob; the village had been deserted by the police two days earlier. 68-78.↩,  Otto Klineberg, Violence and Its Causes (Paris: UNESCO, 1981), pp. Our claim here is therefore limited to the extent that there is a prevalence of a common identity and its dominance in the political realm. The Ramnad riots or the Mudukulathur riots were a series of violent clashes that occurred between July and September 1957 in the Ramnad district and in southern Tamil Nadu, India. In order to offer sacrifices to the Badrakali temple, the Maravars kidnapped 9 Dalit men from the Katamangalam village and took them.. Mythily Sivaraman ’s essays range from agrarian unrest, caste oppression, land, labour and wages, the centrality of class struggle, the early promise of change, the radical course of left struggles, the coercive apparatus of the state, issues of impunity, and the way the Emergency worked out on the ground. In 1957, intense caste violence broke out in south-eastern Tamil Nadu between the regionally dominant caste of Thevars, and Devendrakula Vellalars (Pallars), a Dalit community. The violence spread across the district, causing many murders and the burning of homes. Muthuramalinga Thevar was soon arrested under the Preventive Detention Act (1950). The peace meeting was held in a nearby village called Mudukulathur.  K.A. Sekaran, Thevar said, did not represent the Pallars. This was for instance the case with the violence centered around Mudukulathur in 1958, elsewhere in the southern plains since the 1990s, and in parts of the western plains since the 2000s. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Remembering Immanuel Sekaran: Brave Dalit leader who lost his life to savarna brutality", "Immanuel Sekaran in the vanguard of Dalit struggle", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=1957_Ramnad_riots&oldid=996463157, Wikipedia pending changes protected pages, Wikipedia pages semi-protected from banned users, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles needing additional references from August 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 19:28. But the Congress increased its votes in the district by 1957. Memories of the Mudukulathur riots have been moulded to perpetuate and intensify caste conflict in the region ever since. The election was won by D.V. Buy Now Notify Me When Book is Available. Gundupatti Incident of 1998 . Caste violence erupts in India over 200-year-old faultline. The government was virtually non-existent in the region. on Amazon.com. The violence was triggered by the legislative assembly by-election, following U. Muthuramalinga Thevar’s resignation. This led to increased awareness amongst Dalits, who used the opportunities available in the government through the policy of reservations. In the years following the riots both communities have used the memory of Mudukulathur for political mobilisation, and the event continues to have strong resonance in contemporary politics. The Ramnad riots or the Mudukulathur riots were a series of violent clashes that occurred between July and September 1957 in the Ramnad district and in southern Tamil Nadu, India. The most gruesome aspect is that the police registered cases against a few hundreds of Pallars under several sections of Indian Penal and Criminal Procedure Codes. When violent caste atrocities were meted out at Kodiyankulam, Gundupatti, Bodi, Thevaram and Meenakshipuram, most of the political parties, democratic forces and human rights organisations remained silent and that was why Dharmapuri violence … N. Ram, Chairman, Kasturi and Sons Ltd, said that Tamil Nadu, which had managed to keep communal violence in check, had a disgraceful record in dealing with caste discrimination. When they heard of his arrest, they picketed the five roads on the Madurai- Rameshwaram highway, demanding the immediate release of their detained leader. Manikumar, ‘Caste Clashes in South Tamil Nadu’, Economic and Political Weekly, 6 September 1997.↩,  Ashutosh Varshney, ‘Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond’, in Carolyn M. Elliott (ed. It is alive and well in Tamil Nadu. 104 books based on 4 votes: Annihilation of Caste by B.R. A police party, he suggested, should be provided to each deputy Tahsildar and Tahsildar for his protection. Manikumar’s Murder in Mudukulathur: Caste and Electoral Politics in Tamil Nadu (2017) helps set the record straight. 6. NEW DELHI, INDIA - … author. Below is the preface to his monograph. Caste conflicts and resultant police action in Tamil Nadu are not uncommon. According to Forward Bloc sources, the five were blindfolded and executed. 42 Dalits were killed during the riots. Manikumar recounts how he researched caste violence in southern Tamil Nadu. In 1957, intense caste violence broke out in south-eastern Tamil Nadu.. ₹275. A police inquiry commission later refuted that claim. The memory of Mudukulathur has also affected the subsequent political process of Tamil Nadu. The ill-advised arrest of Pandian, however, provoked his ranks of the Tamilaga Makkal Munnetra Kazhagam (TMMK) who had assembled in large numbers at Paramakudi. By the second week of October 1957, the violence had abated. Namboodiripad, 2010 Murder in Mudukulathur eBook: K.A. In Veerambal, Kallar and Maravar stormed a church where a group of Devendrakula Velalar had sought refuge. In the police firing in Paramakudi and later at Chintamani, situated on the outskirts of Madurai, where altercation between the police and the Pallars returning from Paramakudi took place, six Pallars, all landless labourers, lost their lives. Namboodiripad, 2010 The Frontline Years: Selected Articles by … Soon five independent assembly members joined the CRC opposition group, and V.K. In 1957, during the run-up to state assembly by-elections in Tamil Nadu, violence broke out in Mudukulathur—a southeastern town in the state—between the Thevars, the regionally dominant caste, and the Devendrakula Vellalars, a Dalit community. Kindle Books Kindle Unlimited Prime Reading Kindle Book Deals Bestsellers Free Kindle Reading Apps Buy A Kindle Australian Authors Audible Audiobooks Caste Violence Against India’s “untouchables”. However, as Congress supporters, they found themselves pitted against U. Muthuramalinga Thevar and his political outfit, the All- India Forward Bloc that comprised mainly of Thevars. In the mid 1980s John Pandian, a Pallar by descent and a strong-arm man from Tirunelveli region, known for his audacious militant posture, mobilised the Pallars in Ramanathapuram, Sivagangai, Virudhunagar, Madurai, Dindugul and Theni districts, under the banner of Tamilaga Makkal Munnetra Kazhagam (TMMK). On the following day police opened fire on a Thevar mob, but with no casualties. . Manikumar recounts how he researched caste violence in southern Tamil Nadu. Owing to violence in the after math of the 1957 Mudukulathur bye-election, the district collector convened a peace meeting where all caste leaders, including the powerful Muthuramalinga Thevar of Forward Bloc, were invited. Kovalsky, ‘Social Aspects of International Aggression’, International Social Science Journal, vol. That the Chief Minister K. Kamaraj of the Congress aligned himself with the Pallars only increased the wedge on communal lines. In 1957, intense caste violence broke out in south-eastern Tamil Nadu between the regionally dominant caste of Thevars, and Devendrakula Vellalars (Pallars), a Dalit community. As the dominant caste in east Ramanathapuram, their writ ran through the area. They worried about offending Muthuramalinga Thevar or any other Thevar leader. Featured image is a Government of India stamp issued on Immanuel Sekaran’s birth anniversary (9 October) in 2010. Panikkar – convened a peace conference in a bid to enforce peace. Etched in popular memory as the Mudukulathur Riots, the memories of this infamous event remain alive today. … , Ramanathapuram district was deemed to be infamous for its brutal caste-based discrimination during the colonial era of the 1930's. Stating that conflict cannot be excluded from social life, scholars have distinguished between conflict and violence. Violence incidents were continuously happening as fire, robbery, murder. The violence was triggered by the legislative assembly by-election, following U. Muthuramalinga Thevar’s resignation. Two Devendrakula Velalar were killed and a further 32 were injured. Muthuramalinga Thevar and his confederates won comfortably in both the Mudukulathur general and Scheduled Caste constituencies of Ramanathapuram in the first two elections (1952 and 1957). The conference delegates finally decided to give statements independently. K.A. Updated 0346 GMT (1146 HKT) January 5, 2018 . Half of the seats won were from the Ramnad and Madurai districts. Read 2 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. , more clashes occurred, but from the world 's largest community for readers Inspector went. Veerambal, Arumbakkan, Irulandapatti and Sandakottai him ’ Nadars ( another Non-Brahmin )., who represented the Mudukulathur riots, the five were blindfolded and executed grow. 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